Ventricular Assist Device Support as a Bridge to Transplantation in Pediatric Patients

Academic Article


  • Background: Pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) use has evolved dramatically over the last 2 decades. Objectives: This study sought to describe the evolution of VAD support to heart transplantation (HTx) in children in a large international multicenter cohort. Methods: Using data from the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study, comparisons were made between children (<18 years) supported to HTx (January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2015) with VAD or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to VAD support. Results: Of 7,135 listed patients, 5,145 underwent HTx; 995 (19.3%) were supported by a VAD (113 with congenital heart disease [CHD]). Patients with a VAD as their first device (n = 821) were older, larger, and more likely to have cardiomyopathy (80%) than patients transitioned from ECMO to VAD (n = 164). In the VAD-only cohort, 79% underwent HTx and 14% died, compared with 69% and 24% in the ECMO-to-VAD cohort, respectively. Patients with cardiomyopathy achieved HTx 84% of the time, with a 9% waitlist mortality rate compared with 55% and 36%, respectively, for CHD. Among VAD-treated patients, 79% were age >10 years in the earliest era, a percentage decreasing to 34% more recently, though neonates still represent <1%. Overall, survival at 2 and 20 years showed no difference between VAD and no support (2 years: 75% vs. 80%; 20 years: 55% vs. 54%). Post-HTx outcomes were better for durable versus temporary VADs (p < 0.01) and for continuous versus pulsatile VADs (p < 0.01) from 2005 onward; timing of VAD had no impact on post-HTx survival (p = 0.65). Conclusions: For one-quarter of a century, major advances have occurred in mechanical support technology for children, thereby expanding the capability to bridge to HTx without compromising post-HTx outcomes. Significant challenges remain, especially for neonates and patients with CHD, but ongoing innovation portends improved methods of support during the next decade.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 9489189
  • Author List

  • Dipchand AI; Kirk R; Naftel DC; Pruitt E; Blume ED; Morrow R; Rosenthal D; Auerbach S; Richmond ME; Kirklin JK
  • Start Page

  • 402
  • End Page

  • 415
  • Volume

  • 72
  • Issue

  • 4