COP9 plays a role in plant innate immunity. The role of COP9 in mammalian innate immune responses is unknown. Here, we show that the COP9 signalosome subunit 5 (CSN5) is required for activation of proinflammatory kinases p38 and Erk and for down-regulation of the expression of genes regulated by nuclear factor E2-related factor 2. Mice with myeloid-specific CSN5 deficiency have lower mortality in polymicrobial sepsis. CSN5 is required for both Toll-like receptor (TLR) and reactive oxygen species-mediated deneddylation of Cul3, which is essential for Cul3/Keap1-mediated degradation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2. On the basis of our results COP9 subunit CSN5 is considered to be an essential component of mammalian innate immunity.