A novel method of large-scale chromatography has been developed to improve recovery and purity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from pooled plasma. The current study compares safety, toxicity and efficacy of two intravenous immunoglobulin products: a novel formulation, IGIV caprylate/chromatography (IGIV-C; Gamunex™, 10%) and a licensed solvent/detergent-treated product, Gamimune®N, 10% (IGIV-SD). The study, a randomized, double-blind, parallel group, therapeutic equivalence trial, was conducted at 25 treatment centers in Canada and the United States. Patients (n=172) having confirmed chronic primary immunodeficiency (PID), aged 1-75 years, and receiving IGIV therapy were enrolled. For 9 months, patients were treated with IGIV-C or IGIV-SD in accordance with the patient's individualized treatment regimen utilized before study entry. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with ≥1 validated acute sinopulmonary infection during the treatment period. Secondary endpoints included the proportion of patients with all infections, time to first infection, annual infection rates, lung function parameters, infusion-related safety and viral safety. The annual validated infection rate in the IGIV-C group was 0.18 compared to 0.43 in the IGIV-SD group (p=0.023). Nine patients receiving IGIV-C experienced validated infections, compared to 17 patients in IGIV-SD group (p=0.06). Acute sinusitis (validated plus clinically defined) was less frequent in the IGIV-C group (p=0.012). Presence of bronchiectasis did not affect efficacy. Adverse reactions were similar in frequency and severity in both groups. No evidence of viral transmission was observed. IGIV-C appears to be superior to IGIV-SD in preventing validated sinopulmonary infections, especially acute sinusitis, in patients with PID. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.