A major diagnostic intervention in the consideration of many patients suspected to have primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) is the application and interpretation of vaccination. Specifically, the antibody response to antigenic challenge with vaccines can provide substantive insight into the status of human immune function. There are numerous vaccines that are commonly used in healthy individuals, as well as others that are available for specialized applications. Both can potentially be used to facilitate consideration of PIDD. However, the application of vaccines and interpretation of antibody responses in this context are complex. These rely on consideration of numerous existing specific studies, interpolation of data from healthy populations, current diagnostic guidelines, and expert subspecialist practice. This document represents an attempt of a working group of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology to provide further guidance and synthesis in this use of vaccination for diagnostic purposes in consideration of PIDD, as well as to identify key areas for further research. © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.