Nonhuman primates are often used as a model for studying vaccines for humans. However, it is not always clear how closely the antibody responses in these species mimic human responses. Recent studies have characterized the human antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in great detail. In this study, we have compared the antibody response to Hib of humans with those of other primates. Studies of isoelectric points and Vκ subgroup usage show that, like humans, nonhuman primates produce oligoclonal antibodies. Also, monkey antibodies to the Hib polysaccharide are as protective as human antibodies in an in vivo model of Hib infection. Thus, we conclude that nonhuman primates produce antibodies to Hib polysaccharide that are structurally and functionally similar to human antibodies and are a good model for testing human vaccines.