We report a patient on maintenance dialysis with oxalosis and radiographical signs typical of hyperparathyroid bone disease in patients with end-stage renal insufficiency. The patient underwent a subtotal parathyroidectomy. Because his bone pain worsened during long-term dialytic therapy, a bone biopsy was performed and revealed crystalline deposits in trabecules and the bone marrow characteristic of oxalate. Trabecular destruction and signs of defective mineralization of bone were also found. When the diagnosis was made, the patient had become addicted to narcotic analgesics; he died from an overdose. The case underscores the limits of skeletal radiographs for the diagnosis of oxalosis in bone. Furthermore, the radiographic findings may lead to erroneous conclusions in patients with renal osteodystrophy because the radiographic signs of oxalosis can mimic those of hyperparathyroid bone disease. © 1987, National Kidney Foundation, Inc.. All rights reserved.