Based on the pre-clinical spectrum of activity in taxane-resistant cell lines, we evaluated KOS-862 (epothilone D; 12,13-desoxyepothilone B) as second-line chemotherapy in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Thirty-eight men with metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer and evidence of progression following docetaxel-based chemotherapy were treated with KOS-862, 100 mg/m2 (maximum of 240 mg) i.v. weekly for 3 weeks, repeated every 4 weeks. The primary objective for this study was to determine the antitumor activity, measured by PSA decline by more then 50% confirmed 4 weeks later. Two patients (5.3%, 90% CI 1-16%) met criteria for confirmed PSA decline. While both of these patients had previously been treated with docetaxel, neither had confirmed docetaxel-refractory disease. None of the 24 patients with measurable disease had a confirmed partial response. Seventy-three percent of patients had an adverse event leading to dose delay, reduction, or treatment discontinuation. Neurological toxicity and fatigue predominated. Seventeen patients (44.7%) had treatment related grade 3 neurological adverse events including peripheral sensory neuropathy (n=4, 10.5%), ataxia (n=3, 7.9%), peripheral motor neuropathy (n=1, 2.6%), involuntary muscle contractions (n=1, 2.6%) and neuropathic pain (n=1, 2.6%). One subject (2.6%) had a grade 4 treatment peripheral motor neuropathy. Further study of this dose and schedule of KOS-862 in this patient population cannot be recommended due to both lack of activity and excessive toxicity. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007.