© 2018 American Physical Society. Time-domain techniques have shown the potential of photomanipulating existing orders and inducing new states of matter in strongly correlated materials. Using time-resolved exact diagonalization, we perform numerical studies of pump dynamics in a Mott-Peierls system with competing charge and spin density waves. A light-enhanced d-wave superconductivity is observed when the system resides near a quantum phase boundary. By examining the evolution of spin, charge, and superconducting susceptibilities, we show that a subdominant state in equilibrium can be stabilized by photomanipulating the charge order to allow superconductivity to appear and dominate. This work provides an interpretation of light-induced superconductivity from the perspective of order competition and offers a promising approach for designing novel emergent states out of equilibrium.