Chlamydia trachomatis serological assays with improved sensitivity over commercially available assays are needed to evaluate the burden of C. trachomatis infection and the effectiveness of prevention efforts. We evaluated the performance of a C. trachomatis outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the detection of anti-C. trachomatis antibody responses in C. trachomatis-infected women. OmcB ELISA was less sensitive than our C. trachomatis elementary body (EB) ELISA, but it was highly specific. The magnitude of the antibody response was higher in African-Americans and those with prior C. trachomatis infection. Unlike EB ELISA, the IgG1 response to C. trachomatis OmcB was short-lived and was not maintained by repeat C. trachomatis infection.