Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the teaching and practicing of pelvic floor muscle exercise (PFME) before and after delivery. Study Design: This was a secondary data analysis from a prospective multicenter cohort study, the Childbirth and Pelvic Symptoms study, by the Pelvic Floor Disorders Network. Primiparous women (n = 759) with term singleton delivery were interviewed 6 months after delivery. Results: Sixty-four percent of the women had been taught PFME, most with verbal (76%) and/or written instructions (55%) and a few (10%) during pelvic examination. Women with anal sphincter tears were not more likely to receive instruction or reminders after delivery. More white women (75%) were taught PFME than were Asian women (48%), African American women (36%), or Hispanic women (39%; P < .0001). More women with college education (74%) were taught, compared with women without a college education (37%; P < .0001). Of those women who were taught, 68% performed PFME after delivery, and 63% were still performing the exercises 6 months after delivery. Conclusion: Results reveal tremendous potential for the improvement of PFME education and targeting at-risk women in the peripartum period. © 2007 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.