Relationship of reproductive cycle-associated and non-reproductive cycle-associated psychological problems in women

Academic Article


  • Objective - To determine the frequency of past psychological problems associated with the reproductive cycle in women seeking routine gynecological care. Methods - Three hundred and sixty-eight women of menopausal age seen at a university medical center gynecology clinic were mailed a questionnaire requesting information about past mood or anxiety problems associated with specific reproductive cycle or hormone use times, such as the premenstruum, pregnancy, postpartum, perimenopause, following total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and during oral contraceptive or hormone replacement treatment. Chi-square analysis was done between groups categorized as with and without reproductively associated psychological problems (RAPP) and with or without non-reproductively related psychological problems (non-RAPP). Relative risk of women with RAPP having non-RAPP also was calculated. Results - One hundred thirteen women returned the questionnaire. Fifty percent of these women reported a past history of reproductive cycle-associated psychological problems (RAPP). Of these, 37% also reported psychological problems at times in their lives not associated with particular reproductive cycle (non-RAPP) times. However, of the 50% of women who reported no history of RAPP, only 14% reported non-RAPP. This was a significant difference between the groups (p = .0064). There was also a 2.7 times greater risk of women with RAPP also having non-RAPP (RR 2.7). Conclusions - Women with reproductively associated psychological problems have a greater risk of also having psychological problems at non-reproductively associated times. © 2006 Controversies in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Polish Society of Perinatal Medicine, the International Society of Reproductive Medicine, the World Foundation for Medical Studies in Female Health and the Center for the Study of Cryopreservation of Oocytes and Spermatozoa.
  • Authors

    Author List

  • Chandraiah S; Richter H; Holley R
  • Start Page

  • 33
  • End Page

  • 37
  • Volume

  • 51
  • Issue

  • 1