Reduced arterial elasticity and endothelial dysfunction both may indicate early cardiovascular (CV) disease in young adults. Pulse waveform analysis estimates large (LAE) and small (SAE) artery elasticity noninvasively. We assessed the associations between LAE and SAE and markers of endothelial dysfunction and CV risk factors. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) assessed arterial elasticity and other characteristics cross-sectionally in 389 men and 381 women age 27 to 42 years in 1995 (CARDIA year 10) and circulating levels of P-selectin and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM1) in 2000. We adjusted for variables included in the estimation of arterial elasticity (year 10 height, body mass index, age, heart rate, and blood pressure) and other year 10 characteristics. Mean adjusted SAE was 8.5 vs. 7.6 mL/mm Hg × 100 in those with urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≤4 vs. microalbuminuria (ratio >25; Ptrend= .008). Mean LAE was 25.6 vs. 24.2 mL/mm Hg × 10 in the lowest vs. highest quintile of P-selectin (Ptrend= .004). sICAM1 was unrelated to either LAE or SAE. Plasma triglycerides were inversely related to LAE (Ptrend= .029). Cigarette smokers had lower SAE than nonsmokers (Ptrend= .009). In addition to smoking and triglycerides, biomarkers for endothelial dysfunction were associated with impaired LAE and SAE in young adults. © 2008 American Society of Hypertension.