Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of breast cancer by hormone receptor status.

Academic Article

Abstract

  • BACKGROUND: Estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) breast cancer has few known or modifiable risk factors. Because ER(-) tumors account for only 15% to 20% of breast cancers, large pooled analyses are necessary to evaluate precisely the suspected inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and risk of ER(-) breast cancer. METHODS: Among 993 466 women followed for 11 to 20 years in 20 cohort studies, we documented 19 869 estrogen receptor positive (ER(+)) and 4821 ER(-) breast cancers. We calculated study-specific multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses and then combined them using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Total fruit and vegetable intake was statistically significantly inversely associated with risk of ER(-) breast cancer but not with risk of breast cancer overall or of ER(+) tumors. The inverse association for ER(-) tumors was observed primarily for vegetable consumption. The pooled relative risks comparing the highest vs lowest quintile of total vegetable consumption were 0.82 (95% CI = 0.74 to 0.90) for ER(-) breast cancer and 1.04 (95% CI = 0.97 to 1.11) for ER(+) breast cancer (P (common-effects) by ER status < .001). Total fruit consumption was non-statistically significantly associated with risk of ER(-) breast cancer (pooled multivariable RR comparing the highest vs lowest quintile = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.85 to 1.04). CONCLUSIONS: We observed no association between total fruit and vegetable intake and risk of overall breast cancer. However, vegetable consumption was inversely associated with risk of ER(-) breast cancer in our large pooled analyses.
  • Keywords

  • Adult, Aged, Biomarkers, Tumor, Breast Neoplasms, Clinical Trials as Topic, Feeding Behavior, Female, Fruit, Humans, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis, Prospective Studies, Receptors, Estrogen, Receptors, Progesterone, Risk, Surveys and Questionnaires, Vegetables
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Jung S; Spiegelman D; Baglietto L; Bernstein L; Boggs DA; van den Brandt PA; Buring JE; Cerhan JR; Gaudet MM; Giles GG
  • Start Page

  • 219
  • End Page

  • 236
  • Volume

  • 105
  • Issue

  • 3