Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death. Proneurotensin is a biomarker associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. We assessed the association of fasting proneurotensin with mortal events by gender and race (black–white) in a US population. Using a case-cohort subpopulation of the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study, fasting proneurotensin was measured on a 1,046-person subcohort and in 651 participants with incident coronary heart disease. Higher proneurotensin was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.6 per interquartile range, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 1.9) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.6). For all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, association was stronger in women (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.6 and HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.7, respectively) than men (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.8 and HR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.3, respectively), although this difference was not significant. Proneurotensin predicted all-cause mortality in both races and was not predictive of cardiovascular mortality in whites but was in blacks. Proneurotensin was not associated with incident coronary heart disease events. Elevated proneurotensin levels predicted all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders, with a trend toward stronger association in women. Associations were similar in blacks and whites. In conclusion, proneurotensin may be a useful biomarker for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality regardless of race, and it is potentially specific in women.