© 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted. Despite the efforts to expand the availability of conjugate vaccines, pneumococcal diseases still pose an enormous burden worldwide therefore, several proteins have been investigated as alternative vaccines, alone or in combination with other antigens. With an increasing array of techniques, many of which arose from the publication of the bacterial genome, several proteins have been identified as potential vaccine candidates, and some have even progressed to clinical trials. Also, whole cell vaccines are being studied for the induction of broad ranging protective responses. Here, we briefly summarize the current knowledge on pneumococcal proteins that are being investigated as potential vaccine candidates against pneumococcal infections, and provide an insight on the future generation of protein-based vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae.