The current treatment of obliterative bronchiolitis in lung transplant recipients is sub-optimal. Triptolide is a novel immunosuppressant that has a mechanism of action distinct from currently available immunosuppressants, including induction of T-cell apoptosis, blockade of fibroblast proliferation/maturation and inhibition of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mRNA production. We hypothesized that triptolide may be helpful in blocking obliterative airway disease in lung transplant recipients. We investigated the effect of PG490-88, a water-soluble derivative of triptolide, in a mouse heterotopic tracheal allograft model of obliterative airway disease. We show that PG490-88 attenuates airway obliteration in this model and inhibits accumulation of inflammatory cells, and therefore may have preventive or therapeutic benefits for patients with obliterative airway disease (OAD) following lung transplantation.