Although cyclic nucleotides play an important role in regulating the control of metabolism, it is not known whether there are any differential alterations in cyclic nucleotides in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes after trauma-hemorrhage and resuscitation. To study this, rats underwent laparotomy (i.e., trauma-induced) and were rapidly bled to and maintained at a mean arterial pressure of 40 mmHg until 40% of maximum bleedout volume was returned in the form of Ringer’s lactate. The animals were then resuscitated with Ringer’s lactate, equivalent to four times the volume of shed blood. At the time of maximum bleedout or at 1.5 h postresuscitation, a portion of the liver was removed, and the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Moreover, Kupffer cells and hepatocytes were isolated in additional groups of animals and cAMP and cGMP levels were measured. The results indicate that hepatic cAMP decreased, whereas hepatic cGMP increased significantly at the time of maximum bleedout. Although resuscitation normalized hepatic cyclic nucleotide levels, the levels of cAMP and cGMP in Kupffer cells increased significantly at 1.5 h after resuscitation. In contrast, cAMP and cGMP levels in hepatocytes were not significantly different from shams under such conditions. Thus, differential alterations in cyclic nucleotide levels in different liver cell populations occur following traumahemorrhage and resuscitation. © 1994 The Shock Society.