© 2018 Elsevier Inc. Patients with pericardial disease often require interventional therapies or surgery, making it essential for anesthesiologists to understand the altered physiology of these disease states and the resultant impact on perioperative management. The broad spectrum of syndromes involving the pericardium present with varying degrees of clinical significance, from asymptomatic presentations to life-threatening emergencies. Impaired diastolic filling of the heart represents a common theme of pericardial disease, with the rate of onset of pericardial pathology largely determining the extent of this impairment and subsequent severity of presentation. This review highlights recent updates in the literature regarding the diagnostic evaluation, medical therapy, and invasive therapeutic procedures for common pericardial syndromes from the perspective of a perioperative physician.