Background: Newborn infections are responsible for approximately one-third of the estimated 4.0 million neonatal deaths that occur globally every year. Appropriately targeted research is required to guide investment in effective interventions, especially in low resource settings. Setting global priorities for research to address neonatal infections is essential and urgent. Methods: The Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development of the World Health Organization (WHO/CAH) applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) priority-setting methodology to identify and stimulate research most likely to reduce global newborn infection-related mortality by 2015. Technical experts were invited by WHO/CAH to systematically list and then use standard methods to score research questions according to their likelihood to (i) be answered in an ethical way, (ii) lead to (or improve) effective interventions, (iii) be deliverable, affordable, and sustainable, (iv) maximize death burden reduction, and (v) have an equitable effect in the population. The scores were then weighted according to the values provided by a wide group of stakeholders from the global research priority-setting network. FINDINGS: On a 100-point scale, the final priority scores for 69 research questions ranged from 39 to 83. Most of the 15 research questions that received the highest scores were in the domain of health systems and policy research to address barriers affecting existing cost-effective interventions. The priority questions focused on promotion of home care practices to prevent newborn infections and approaches to increase coverage and quality of management of newborn infections in health facilities as well as in the community. While community-based intervention research is receiving some current investment, rigorous evaluation and cost analysis is almost entirely lacking for research on facility-based interventions and quality improvement. Interpretation: Given the lack of progress in improving newborn survival despite the existence of effective interventions, it is not surprising that of the top ranked research priorities in this article the majority are in the domain of health systems and policy research. We urge funding agencies and investigators to invest in these research priorities to accelerate reduction of neonatal deaths, particularly those due to infections. © 2008 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.