Background and objectives In the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes randomized trial, glycemic control with insulin-sensitization therapy was compared with insulin-provision therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. This study examined differences in albumin excretion and renal function in the insulin-sensitization group versus the insulin-provision group over 5 years. Design, setting, participants & measurements In total, 1799 patients with measurements of creatinine and urine albumin/creatinine ratio at baseline and at least two follow-up visits were included. Management of BP, lipids, and lifestyle counseling was uniform. Progression of albuminuria was defined as doubling of baseline albumin/creatinine ratio to at least 100 mg/g or worsening of albumin/creatinine ratio status on two or more visits. Worsening renal function was defined as >25% decline in estimated GFR and annualized decline of >3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year. Results By 6 months and thereafter, the mean glycated hemoglobin levels were lower in the insulin-sensitization group compared with the insulin-provision group (P<0.002 for each time point; absolute difference=0.4%). Albumin/creatinine ratio increased over time in the insulin-sensitization group (P value for trend<0.001) and was stable in the insulin-provision group. Risk for progression of albumin/creatinine ratio was higher in the insulin-sensitization group compared with the insulin-provision group (odds ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 2.02; P=0.02). Over 5 years, albumin/creatinine ratio increased from 11.5 (interquartile range=5.0-46.7) to 15.7 mg/g (interquartile range=6.2-55.4) in the insulin-sensitization group (P<0.001) and from 12.1 (interquartile range=5.3-41.3) to 12.4 mg/g (interquartile range=5.8-50.6) in the insulin-provision group (P=0.21). Estimated GFR declined from 75.0±20.6 to 66.3±22.6 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the insulin-sensitization group (P<0.001) and from 76.1±29.5 to 66.8±22.1 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the insulin-provision group (P<0.001). Conclusion Over 5 years, despite lower glycated hemoglobin levels, the insulin-sensitization treatment group had greater progression of albumin/creatinine ratio compared with the insulin-provision treatment group. Decline in estimated GFR was similar. © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.