Previous data from many groups show that both class I and class II-restricted T cells recognize short synthetic peptides in the context of their respective MHC molecules (9-18). All of the peptides described to data are restricted to only a single class of MHC molecules; however, structural homology between the class I and II MHC molecules and the use of similar TCRs by class I and II-restricted T cells suggest that antigen recognition mechanisms are similar in both systems. To directly compare antigen recognition in the two systems, we analyzed peptides for the ability to function in both class I and II-restricted system and found that seven of seven individual peptides tested stimulate both class I and II-restricted T cell responses. In addition, two of the peptides can function in different species stimulating both human class I and murine class II T cell responses. Thus, the process of T cell recognition of antigen in the context of MHC molecules was highly conserved in evolution not only between the class I and class II MHC systems, but also between the murine and human species.