The effect of psychosocial factors on hospital length of stay (LOS) after heart transplantation has not been reported. This study examines relationships between preoperative psychosocial variables and LOS and identifies preoperative psychosocial predictors of LOS after transplant. A nonrandom sample of 307 patients at two medical centers completed a self-administered booklet of psychosocial measures. A chart review was also conducted. Psychosocial problems included anxiety, stress, and inadequate coping; questionable understanding of heart failure and treatment; substance abuse; and noncompliance. Self-care disability, a history of noncompliance, and more emotional disability predicted 8% of LOS. This supports the inclusion of psychosocial issues and functional disability in post-heart transplant clinical pathways.