© 2015, IGI Global. All rights reserved. The focus of this survey is on spatio-temporal data mining and database retrieval for visual traffic surveillance systems. In many traffic surveillance applications, such as incident detection, abnormal events detection, vehicle speed estimation, and traffic volume estimation, the data used for reasoning is really in the form of spatio-temporal data (e.g. vehicle trajectories). How to effectively analyze these spatiotemporal data to automatically find its inherent characteristics for different visual traffic surveillance applications has been of great interest. Examples of spatio-temporal patterns extracted from traffic surveillance videos include, but are not limited to, sudden stops, harsh turns, speeding, and collisions. To meet the different needs of various traffic surveillance applications, several application- or event- specific models have been proposed in the literature. This paper provides a survey of different models and data mining algorithms to cover state of the art in spatio-temporal modelling, spatio-temporal data mining, and spatio-temporal retrieval for traffic surveillance video databases. In addition, the database model issues and challenges for traffic surveillance videos are also discussed in this survey.