Introduction: This prospective study was designed to confirm risk factors and to assess the incidence of deep vein thrombosis after total hip and surface replacement arthroplasty in Korean patients not receiving anticoagulation prophylaxis and to determine efficacy of plasma D-dimer levels as a screening test. Materials and methods: From May 2003 to August 2004, 221 consecutive patients undergoing unilateral total hip arthroplasty and hip resurfacing were evaluated. All patients underwent ultrasonography preoperatively and venography and/or ultrasonography on postoperative day 7. Plasma D-dimer levels were estimated by latex immuno-assay preoperatively and on days 3 and 7 postoperatively. Results: Of the 221 patients in our cohort, 23 developed deep vein thrombosis (10.4%). Age (r = 0.245, P < 0.001) and gender (r = 0.155, P = 0.021) significantly correlated with deep vein thrombosis. Rise in incidence paralleled increase in age (X2 = 32.860, P < 0.001). D-dimer levels on postoperative days 3 (β = 0.364, P < 0.001) and 7 (β = 0.470, P < 0.001) were significantly correlated to the development of DVT. Conclusion: While incidence of deep vein thrombosis in Korean population after THA was lower than that in the West; it increased with age, and in female gender. Significant correlation was found between D-dimer levels and the development of deep vein thrombosis. © Springer-Verlag 2008.