© 2018 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be curative for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, morbidity associated with myeloablative conditioning and graft-versus-host disease has limited its utility. To this end, autologous HSCT for SCD using lentiviral gene-modified bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells has been undertaken, although toxicities of fully ablative conditioning with busulfan and incomplete engraftment have been encountered. Treosulfan, a busulfan analog with a low extramedullary toxicity profile, has been used successfully as part of a myeloablative conditioning regimen in the allogeneic setting in SCD. To further minimize toxicity of conditioning, noncytotoxic monoclonal antibodies that clear stem cells from the marrow niche, such as anti-c-Kit (ACK2), have been considered. Using a murine model of SCD, we sought to determine whether nonmyeloablative conditioning followed by transplantation with syngeneic BM cells could ameliorate the disease phenotype. Treosulfan and ACK2, in a dose-dependent manner, decreased BM cellularity and induced cytopenia in SCD mice. Conditioning with treosulfan alone at nonmyeloablative dosing (3.6 g/kg), followed by transplantation with syngeneic BM donor cells, permitted long-term mixed-donor chimerism. Level of chimerism correlated with improvement in hematologic parameters, normalization of urine osmolality, and improvement in liver and spleen pathology. Addition of ACK2 to treosulfan conditioning did not enhance engraftment. Our data suggests that pretransplant conditioning with treosulfan alone may allow sufficient erythroid engraftment to reverse manifestations of SCD, with clinical application as a preparative regimen in SCD patients undergoing gene-modified autologous HSCT.