Background: Cardiac ischemia on the ambulatory ECG (AECG) and/or on the exercise treadmill test (ETT) is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcome. Myocardial revascularization more often suppresses cardiac ischemia than does medical management alone. However, few studies have compared the effects of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with those of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on cardiac ischemia and clinical outcome. Methods and Results: A total of 558 patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment strategies in the Asymptomatic Cardiac Ischemia Pilot (ACIP) study: angina-guided medical strategy (n=184), ischemia-guided medical strategy (n=182), or revascularization (n=192). In patients assigned to revascularization, the choice of the procedure, PTCA or CABG, was made by the clinical unit staff and patient based on a coronary angiogram usually performed within 2 months of enrollment. CABG was selected in 78 patients and PTCA in 92 patients. At 12 weeks, ischemia on the AECG was suppressed in 70% of CABG patients versus 46% of PTCA patients (P=.002). Ischemia on the ETT was no longer present in 46% versus 23% of the patients, respectively (P=.005). Angina, within 4 weeks of the follow-up visit, was absent in 90% versus 68%, respectively (P=.001). These clinical variables remained improved in both groups at 1 year. Clinical events (myocardial infarction or repeat revascularization) occurred in 1 CABG patient versus 7 PTCA patients at 12 weeks, and in 1 versus 16 patients, respectively, at 12 months (P<.001). Conclusions: Ischemia on the AECG and ETT and angina were relieved in many patients after both procedures; however, CABG was superior to PTCA, and it was associated with a lower incidence of clinical events at 1 year. These results suggest that more complete revascularization relates to better clinical outcome. However, a large trial is needed to confirm these results.