BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare but potentially lethal complication after orthopaedic foot and ankle surgery. The true incidence of VTE after orthopaedic foot and ankle surgery stratified by specific procedure has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study is to report the incidence of and identify risk factors for VTE in a large sample of patients receiving orthopaedic foot and ankle surgery. METHODS: In this study, we retrospectively analyzed data from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2006 to 2015 data files. The incidence of VTE was calculated for 30 specific orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeries and for 4 broad types of foot and ankle surgery. Demographic, comorbidity, and complication variables were analyzed to determine associations with development of VTE. RESULTS: The overall incidence of VTE in our sample was 0.6%. The types of procedures with the highest frequency of VTE were ankle fractures (105/15 302 cases, 0.7%), foot pathologies (28/5466, 0.6%), and arthroscopy (2/398, 0.5%). Female gender, increasing age, obesity, inpatient status, and nonelective surgery were all significantly associated with VTE. CONCLUSION: Although VTE after orthopaedic foot and ankle surgery is a rare occurrence, several high-risk groups and procedures may be especially indicated for chemical thromboprophylaxis. LEVELS OF EVIDENCE: Level III: Retrospective, comparative study.