Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum infections in nude mice (nu/nu) were compared with infections in nu/+ heterozygotes or intact mice. Seven to 12 weeks after exposure to S. mansoni, the responses of Swiss NCR, C3H, BALB/c and C57Bl/6 nude mice did not differ substantially. Nude mice of all these strains showed minute granulomas around eggs in the liver and minimal hepatic fibrosis. Microvesicular and necrotizing changes in hepatocytes were similar in all mouse strains, and S. mansoni infections were frequently lethal to nude, but not to intact mice between the seventh and ninth weeks of infection. Nude mice that survived the ninth week of infection generally lived until the 12th week. The number of eggs per mature worm pair in the tissues of S. mansoni-infected nude mice was similar to the number in intact mice, but nude mice passed fewer eggs in the feces. Nude mice that received serum from infected intact mice excreted eggs in the stool in numbers equivalent to intact mice, but continued to form minute granulomas around S. mansoni eggs. Reconstitution with fetal thymus or with splenocytes from normal or S. mansoni-infected mice partially or completely restored hepatic granuloma size, granuloma eosinophils, hepatic fibrosis, and excretion of eggs in the feces. In contrast to S. mansoni infection, S. japonicum infections in nude mice did not cause necrosis of hepatocytes or excessive mortality, and S. japonicum eggs were passed in the feces in numbers equivalent to those passed by infected intact mice.