Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occur often among sexually active persons with HIV infection. Incident STDs may complicate the course of HIV infection and potentiate HIV transmission in the coinfected individual by mucosal disruption and an increase in HIV concentration in ulcers and involved mucous membranes. Conducting ongoing periodic sexual risk assessments in HIV-positive patients in routine medical care is critical to identifying asymptomatic infections. HIV clinicians should be familiar with updated recommendations for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of bacterial and viral STDs, including those specific to HIV infection. This article addresses emerging issues in the management of STDs in HIV-infected persons and summarizes the latest evidence that can be applied to clinical decision-making in this population. Copyright © 2007 by Current Medicine Group LLC.