Background: In coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, there is uncertainty about whether the radial artery affects quality of life or costs relative to the saphenous vein. This study compared the cost and quality of life for patients randomized to either radial artery or saphenous vein grafts. Methods: We analyzed the duration and cost of the index surgery and costs and quality of life (Seattle Angina Questionnaire and Health Utility Index) at 1 year for 726 participants. Results: The 2 treatment groups had similar baseline characteristics. Using the radial artery added approximately 31 minutes to the surgery (from skin incision to skin closure; P <.001) compared with a saphenous vein graft. There were no significant differences in terms of costs and quality of life after the index hospitalization or at 1 year. Conclusions: Coronary artery bypass grafting with the radial artery lasts approximately 31 minutes longer than with the saphenous vein. However, costs and the quality of life were not statistically different. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.