Using a series of potential biomarkers relevant to mechanisms of protein synthesis, we observed that estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast tumor cells exist in two distinct yet interconvertible phenotypic states (of roughly equal proportion) which differ in the degree of differentiation and use of IRES-mediated translation. Nascently translated IGF1R in the cytoplasm positively correlated with IRES activity and the undifferentiated phenotype, while epitope accessibility of RACK1, an integral component of the 40S ribosomal subunit, aligned with the more differentiated IRES-off state. When deprived of soluble growth factors, the entire tumor cell population shifted to the undifferentiated phenotype in which IRES-mediated translation was active, facilitating survival under these adverse microenvironmental conditions. However, if IRES-mediated translation was inhibited, the cells instead were forced to transition uniformly to the more differentiated state. Notably, cytoplasmic localization of estrogen receptor α (ERα/ESR1) precisely mirrored the pattern observed with nascent IGF1R, correlating with the undifferentiated IRES-active phenotype. Inhibition of IRES-mediated translation resulted in both a shift in ERα to the nucleus (consistent with differentiation) and a marked decrease in ERα abundance (consistent with the inhibition of ERα synthesis via its IRES). Although breast tumor cells tolerated forced differentiation without extensive loss of their viability, their reproductive capacity was severely compromised. In addition, CDK1 was decreased, connexin 43 eliminated and Myc translation altered as a consequence of IRES inhibition. Isolated or low-density ER-positive breast tumor cells were particularly vulnerable to IRES inhibition, losing the ability to generate viable cohesive colonies, or undergoing massive cell death. Collectively, these results provide further evidence for the integral relationship between IRES-mediated translation and the undifferentiated phenotype and demonstrate how therapeutic manipulation of this specialized mode of protein synthesis may be used to limit the phenotypic plasticity and incapacitate or eliminate these otherwise highly resilient breast tumor cells.