© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. The present longitudinal study examined religious beliefs and behaviors, spiritual health locus of control (SHLOC), and selected health-related behaviors and outcomes in a national sample of 766 African American adults. Participants were interviewed by telephone three times over a 5-year period. Results indicated that stronger religious beliefs and religious behaviors were associated with greater changes in active SHLOC. There was some evidence of direct effects of religious beliefs and behaviors on changes in health behaviors. Religious behaviors were related to greater passive SHLOC over time across some health outcomes. Passive SHLOC was associated with some less desirable health outcomes over time.