Background: Superior vena cava oxygen saturation monitoring in the early postoperative period after the Norwood procedure (NP) has been associated with improved survival and decreased adverse events (AE). There is no data describing inferior vena cava saturation (Sivo2) monitoring after NP. We sought to investigate the utility of intermittent Sivo2 monitoring after NP and to assess the correlation of Sivo2 with renal near-infrared spectroscopy (rNIRS). We hypothesized failure to achieve Sivo2 greater than 45% within the first 4 hours after NP is predictive of AE, and that rNIRS correlates with Sivo2. Methods: A retrospective study of 26 consecutive NP patients who received postoperative management with Sivo 2 monitoring according to a strict protocol was conducted. Primary outcome was AE, defined as cardiopulmonary resuscitation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, death before discharge, or residual surgical defects. Results: Ten (38%) patients had one or more AE; mortality was 23%. On admission to the cardiac intensive care unit, patients with AE had lower Sivo2 (45% ± 9.4% versus 62% ± 12.0%; p < 0.001) and lower rNIRS (56 ± 6.5 versus 77 ± 7.2; p < 0.001). At 4 hours, 90% of AE patients had an Sivo2 less than 45% versus 6% of non-AE patients. Both Sivo2 and rNIRS were highly predictive of AE: the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was greater than 0.86 and 0.95, respectively. Two hours after admission, an Sivo2 less than 45% predicted AE with a specificity of 93%, a sensitivity of 70%, and a positive predictive value of 82%. The Sivo2 was strongly correlated with rNIRS (r = 0.81). Conclusions: Intermittent Sivo2 can be used to guide early postoperative NP management; rNIRS is an accurate continuous, noninvasive surrogate for Sivo2. An Sivo2 of less than 45% in the first 4 hours after the NP is predictive of AE. © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.