© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Although the embryology of the posterior cranial fossa can have life altering effects on a patient, a comprehensive review on this topic is difficult to find in the peer-reviewed medical literature. Therefore, this review article, using standard search engines, seemed timely. The embryology of the posterior cranial fossa is complex and relies on a unique timing of various neurovascular and bony elements. Derailment of these developmental processes can lead to a wide range of malformations such as the Chiari malformations. Therefore, a good working knowledge of this embryology as outlined in this review of its bony architecture is important for those treating patients with involvement of this region of the cranium. Clin. Anat. 31:466–487, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.