Little information exists about the effectiveness of health-promotion programs in reducing occupational injury rates. A historical cohort study was conducted to examine the relationship between personal health-risk factors and risk of occupational injury. Workers were grouped on the basis of nonoccupational risk-taking behaviors, psychosocial risks, cardiovascular risk factors, and a total risk-factor variable. All analyses were controlled for sex, smoking status, age, and job classification. An increased risk of occupational injury (P < .0001) was found to be significantly associated with nonoccupational risk-taking behavior. This association may be the result of continued risk-taking behavior in the occupational environment, or assignment of risk-taking individuals to more hazardous job tasks. Psychosocial, cardiovascular, and total risk-factor variables were not associated with an increased risk of occupational injury.