© 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc. PURPOSE. To characterize age-related differences in the magnitude of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) structural change in early experimental glaucoma (EG).METHODS. Both eyes from four young (1.4–2.6 years) and four old (18.6–21.9 years) rhesus monkeys were imaged at least three times at baseline, and then every 2 weeks after laserinduced, chronic, unilateral IOP elevation until the onset of EG (confocal scanning laser tomographic surface change confirmed twice). Two to 20 weeks after EG onset, animals were euthanized and optic nerve axon counts for all eyes were performed. Masked operators delineated retinal and ONH landmarks in 40 radial B-scans from each eye and imaging session to quantify change from baseline in five SD-OCT neural and connective tissue parameters. The effects of EG, age, and EG × age interactions on the magnitude, rate (magnitude per postlaser time), and IOP responsiveness (magnitude per cumulative IOP insult) of postlaser parameter change were individually assessed using general estimating equation models.RESULTS. Presac SD-OCT RNFLT and minimum rim width change and postmortem axon loss was not significantly different in old compared with young EG eyes. The rate of change and IOP responsiveness of the parameters anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth relative to Bruch’s membrane opening (BMO) and BMO depth relative to peripheral Bruch’s membrane were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the old compared with the young EG eyes.CONCLUSIONS. At similar postlaser times, levels of cumulative IOP insult and axonal damage, SDOCT– detected ONH connective tissue structural change is greater in young compared with old monkey EG eyes.