Aberrant local inflammatory signaling within skeletal muscle is now considered a contributing factor to the development of sarcopenia. Recent evidence indicates that chronic resistance training contributes to the control of locally derived inflammation via adaptations to repeated, acute increases in pro-inflammatory mRNA within muscle. However, only a limited number of gene transcripts related to the inflammatory process have been examined in the literature. The present study utilized an acute bout to examine the effects of resistance exercise on several inflammatory-related genes in 24 physically active, post-menopausal women not currently undergoing hormone replacement therapy. Following a standard warm-up, participants completed a lower-body resistance exercise bout consisting of 3 sets of 10 repetitions on machine squat, leg press, and leg extension exercises (80% intensity). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of the dominant leg at baseline and 3 h following exercise. Significant (p < 0.05) up-regulation in mRNA content was observed for TNFα, IL1β, IL6, IL8, SOCS2, COX2, SAA1, SAA2, IKKB, cfos, and junB. Muscle mRNA content was not significantly altered at the 0.05 level for IL2, IL5, IL10, or IL12 (p35). Venous blood samples were also obtained at baseline as well as at 3, 24, and 48 h post-exercise. Serum was analyzed for circulating TNFα, IL1β, IL6, IL8, COX2, and SAA with no significant changes observed. These results indicate that resistance exercise is capable of up-regulating transcription of numerous inflammatory mediators within skeletal muscle, and these appear to be worthy of future examination in chronic studies. © Springer-Verlag 2009.