Development and validation of a self-assessment tool for albuminuria: results from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

Academic Article


  • BACKGROUND: The prevalence of albuminuria in the general population is high, but awareness of it is low. Therefore, we sought to develop and validate a self-assessment tool that allows individuals to estimate their probability of having albuminuria. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: The population-based Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study for model development and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 for model validation. US adults 45 years or older in the REGARDS Study (n = 19,697) and NHANES 1999-2004 (n = 7,168). PREDICTOR: Candidate items for the self-assessment tool were collected using a combination of interviewer- and self-administered questionnaires. OUTCOME: Albuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin to urinary creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g in spot samples. RESULTS: 8 items were included in the self-assessment tool (age, race, sex, current smoking, self-rated health, and self-reported history of diabetes, hypertension, and stroke). These items provided a C statistic of 0.709 (95% CI, 0.699-0.720) and good model fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ(2)P = 0.49). In the external validation data set, the C statistic for discriminating individuals with and without albuminuria using the self-assessment tool was 0.714. Using a threshold of ≥10% probability of albuminuria from the self-assessment tool, 36% of US adults 45 years or older in NHANES 1999-2004 would test positive and be recommended for screening. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for albuminuria associated with a probability ≥10% were 66%, 68%, 23%, and 93%, respectively. LIMITATIONS: Repeated urine samples were not available to assess the persistency of albuminuria. CONCLUSIONS: 8 self-report items provide good discrimination for the probability of having albuminuria. This tool may encourage individuals with a high probability to request albuminuria screening.
  • Published In


  • Albuminuria, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Self-Assessment, Sensitivity and Specificity, Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 2081594
  • Author List

  • Muntner P; Woodward M; Carson AP; Judd SE; Levitan EB; Mann DM; McClellan W; Warnock DG
  • Start Page

  • 196
  • End Page

  • 205
  • Volume

  • 58
  • Issue

  • 2