Acetazolamide (Diamox) (AZM) was evaluated as an adjunct to carbamazepine (CBZ) monotherapy in 48 refractory partial seizure patients at a tertiary care referral center. Patient ages ranged from 6 to 64 years (average 28 years). Seizure frequencies for the pre-AZM baseline period (CBZ monotherapy) were compared with the seizure frequencies at different daily doses of AZM. Patients with a 50% decrease in seizure frequency were considered responders. Twenty-one patients were responders (44%) and three became completely seizure-free. Effective doses ranged from 3.8 to 22.0 mg/kg/day. Effective plasma concentrations ranged from 1 to 22 micrograms/ml in selected patients. Durations of response time to AZM ranged from 3 to 30 months (average 12.9 months). Three patients lost response, one temporarily. Side effects were seen in 10 patients, requiring discontinuation in three.