Cranial computed tomography of 284 patients with transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) and without previous stroke was evaluated. The sample population included patients with carotid and/or vertebrobasilar TIAs. Computed tomography revealed cerebral infarction in 34 patients, including 5 with multiple infarctions. The lesion location was consistent with TIA symptoms in 16 patients. In another 16 patients, however, the lesion location did not correspond to the TIA symptoms; these lesions were attributed to previous silent infarctions. Two patients with multiple infarctions had both symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions. Age and carotid stenosis were each significantly related to an increased chance of detecting cerebral infarction (either symptomatic or asymptomatic). No significant relationship between race, gender, hypertension, diabetes, cardiac disease, or smoking and the incidence of infarction was found by either univariate or multivariate analyses.