Insulin sensitivity and acute insulin response in African-Americans, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics with NIDDM: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.

Academic Article

Abstract

  • NIDDM is usually characterized by beta-cell failure and decreased insulin sensitivity. It has been reported that a high proportion of African-American NIDDM subjects are insulin sensitive. To examine this issue, we determined insulin sensitivity (S(I)) in 479 NIDDM subjects by minimal model analyses of frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance (FSIGT) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS), a large multicenter study of insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk in African-Americans, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites. The African-Americans and non-Hispanic whites were sampled in Los Angeles and Oakland, California. The non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics were sampled in San Antonio, Texas, and San Luis Valley, Colorado. We defined the proportion of insulin-sensitive (S(I)) subjects as > or =1.61 min-1 x microU-1 x ml-1, which is above the median for nondiabetic subjects of all ethnic groups in the IRAS. Using this definition, the proportion of insulin-sensitive diabetic subjects was very low in all ethnic groups (non-Hispanic whites [14.3%] vs. African-Americans [6.5%], P = 0.039 in Los Angeles and Oakland; non-Hispanic whites [6.8%] vs. Hispanics [4.9%], P = 0.737 in San Luis Valley and San Antonio). These results were also similar in newly diagnosed mildly hyperglycemic diabetic subjects. In addition, these results were not affected by the adjustment for differences in obesity, body fat distribution, and severity of hyperglycemia. Even in nonobese subjects (with BMI <30 kg/m2), the proportion of insulin-sensitive subjects (S(I) > or =1.61 min-1 x microU-1 x ml-1) was low (3.6-9.7%). The acute insulin response (AIR) was significantly higher in African-Americans than in non-Hispanic whites; there were no ethnic differences in AIR between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. There were no significant ethnic differences for non-insulin-mediated glucose disposal (S(G)). We conclude that the number of insulin-sensitive NIDDM subjects is low and similar among non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and African-Americans in the U.S.
  • Authors

    Keywords

  • African Americans, African Continental Ancestry Group, Analysis of Variance, Arteriosclerosis, Blood Glucose, Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Diabetic Angiopathies, Ethnic Groups, European Continental Ancestry Group, Fasting, Female, Glucose Tolerance Test, Hispanic Americans, Humans, Hyperglycemia, Insulin, Insulin Resistance, Insulin Secretion, Male, Middle Aged, Obesity, Risk Factors
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Haffner SM; Howard G; Mayer E; Bergman RN; Savage PJ; Rewers M; Mykk√§nen L; Karter AJ; Hamman R; Saad MF
  • Start Page

  • 63
  • End Page

  • 69
  • Volume

  • 46
  • Issue

  • 1