OBJECTIVE - We tested the hypothesis that diabetes, body fat distribution, and (in nondiabetic subjects) fasting insulin levels are positively associated with ischemic stroke incidence in the general population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - As part of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, we measured diabetes by using fasting glucose criteria, waist and hip circumferences, and fasting insulin levels with a radioimmunoassay in > 12,000 adults aged 45-64 years who had no cardiovascular disease at baseline. We followed them for 6-8 years for ischemic stroke occurrence (n = 191). RESULTS - After adjustment for age, sex, race, ARIC community, smoking, and education level, the relative risk of ischemic stroke was 3.70 (95% CI 2.7-5.1) for diabetes, 1.74 (1.4-2.2) for a 0.11 increment of waist-to-hip ratio, and 1.19 (1.1-1.3) for a 50-pmol/l increment of fasting insulin among nondiabetic subjects. Ischemic stroke incidence was not statistically significantly associated with BMI (comparably adjusted relative risk = 1.15, 95% CI 0.97-1.36). With adjustment for other stroke risk factors (some of which may mediate the effects of diabetes, fat distribution, and hyperinsulinemia), the relative risks for diabetes, waist- to-hip ratio, and fasting insulin level were 2.22 (95% CI 1.5-3.2), 1.08 (0.8-1.4), and 1.14 (1.01-1.3), respectively. CONCLUSIONS - Diabetes is a strong risk factor for ischemic stroke. Aspects of insulin resistance, as reflected by elevated waist-to-hip ratios and elevated fasting insulin levels, may also contribute to a greater risk of ischemic stroke.