Impact of gait speed and instrumental activities of daily living on all-cause mortality in adults ≤65 years with heart failure

Academic Article


  • Mobility and function are important predictors of survival. However, their combined impact on mortality in adults ≤65 years with heart failure (HF) is not well understood. This study examined the role of gait speed and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in all-cause mortality in a cohort of 1,119 community-dwelling Cardiovascular Health Study participants ≤65 years with incident HF. Data on HF and mortality were collected through annual examinations or contact during the 10-year follow-up period. Slower gait speed (<0.8 m/s vs ≤0.8 m/s) and IADL impairment (≤1 vs 0 areas of dependence) were determined from baseline and follow-up assessments. A total of 740 (66%) of the 1,119 participants died during the follow-up period. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models showed that impairments in either gait speed (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 1.70; p = 0.004) or IADL (hazard ratio 1.56, 95% confidence interval 1.29-1.89; p <0.001), measured within 1 year before the diagnosis of incident HF, were independently associated with mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The combined presence of slower gait speed and IADL impairment was associated with a greater risk of mortality and suggested an additive relation between gait speed and IADL. In conclusion, gait speed and IADL are important risk factors for mortality in adults ≤65 years with HF, but the combined impairments of both gait speed and IADL can have an especially important impact on mortality.
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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Lo AX; Donnelly JP; McGwin G; Bittner V; Ahmed A; Brown CJ
  • Start Page

  • 797
  • End Page

  • 801
  • Volume

  • 115
  • Issue

  • 6