© 2018, Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature. The objectives of this study are to review the complicated and often confusing technical changes required when converting from the Si robotic system to the Xi when performing pulmonary lobectomy and segmentectomy. We reviewed a prospective database of a consecutive series of patients who intended to undergo robotic lobectomy or segmentectomy by one surgeon. There were 101 lobectomies and 25 segmentectomies performed on the Si robot in 2015–2016, and 95 lobectomies and 28 segmentectomies in 2016 on the Xi robot. The two groups were similar for age, height, weight, pulmonary function, anatomic resections, and co-morbidities. Technical differences in robotic arm numbering, port placement, and instrumentation are shown below. Median docking time was shorter with the Xi robot [7.5 (95% CI 6–8) versus 10 (95% CI 9–12) min, p = 0.003] as was operation duration [114 (95% CI 104–123) versus 119 (95% CI 116–126) min, p = 0.041] and skin closure to room exit [12 (95% CI 10–24) versus 13 (95% CI 12–15) min, p = 0.081]. Anesthesiologists expressed greater comfort with the Xi system, because the patient’s head was not covered by the robot. Outcomes for Si and Xi operations such as median blood loss (20 cc versus 20 cc), transfusion rate (0 versus 0), major complication rate (3.2 versus 3.3%), and the 30- and 90-day mortality were no different (one 30-day death in the Si group). The technical changes that are required for robotic Si-to-Xi conversion are shown. The Xi system may offer improved operational efficiency.