Objective-To compare quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and deuterium oxide (D2 O) methods for measurement of total body water (TBW), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM) in healthy dogs and to assess QMR accuracy. Animals-58 Beagles (9 months to 11.5 years old). Procedures-QMR scans were performed on awake dogs. A D2 O tracer was administered (100 mg/kg, PO) immediately before dogs were sedated, which was followed by a second QMR or DXA scan. Jugular blood samples were collected before and 120 minutes after D2 O administration. Results-TBW, LBM, and FM determined via QMR were not significantly different between awake or sedated dogs, and means differed by only 2.0%, 2.2%, and 4.3%, respectively. Compared with results for D2O dilution, QMR significantly underestimated TBW (10.2%), LBM (13.4%), and FM (15.4%). Similarly, DXA underestimated LBM (7.3%) and FM (8.4%). A significant relationship was detected between FM measured via D2 O dilution and QMR (r2 > 0.89) or DXA (r2 > 0.88). Even though means of TBW and LBM differed significantly between D2 O dilution and QMR or DXA, values were highly related (r2 > 0.92). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-QMR was useful for determining body composition in dogs and can be used to safely and rapidly acquire accurate data without the need for sedation or anesthesia. These benefits can facilitate frequent scans, particularly in geriatric, extremely young, or ill pets. Compared with the D2 O dilution method, QMR correction equations provided accurate assessment over a range of body compositions.