Objective: To determine the relationships between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and features of Type 1 diabetes. Research Design and Methods: Serum CRP was measured by nephelometry in a cross-sectional study of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) cohort (n=983) and nondiabetic subjects (n=71). Results: CRP levels [geometric mean (95% CI)] were higher in diabetic than in control subjects, 1.6 (1.5-1.7) vs. 1.2 (1.1-1.5) mg/l, P=.019. CRP was higher in diabetic women (n=438) than in men (n=545) [2.0 (1.8-2.3) vs. 1.3 (1.2-1.5), P<.001]. Diabetic subjects formerly in the DCCT intensive treatment group had higher CRP levels than those who were randomized to the conventional treatment group [1.8 (1.6-1.9), n=479 vs. 1.5 (1.3-1.6), n=456, P=.010], attributable to greater BMI in the prior intensive group. In diabetes, CRP correlated with HbA1c (r=0.13, P<.0001) and with insulin resistance traits: BMI (r=0.34, P<.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; males: r=0.35, P<.0001; females: r=0.22, P<.0001), diastolic blood pressure (r=0.07, P=.025), triglycerides (r=0.19, P<.0001), apoB (r=0.22, P<.0001), LDL particle concentration (r=0.26, P<.0001), and LDL particle size (r=-0.22, P<.0001). CRP was not associated with complications. Significant independent predictors of CRP in diabetes were gender, BMI, WHR, concurrent HbA1c, and oral contraceptive pill use. Conclusions: CRP was elevated relative to nondiabetic subjects, and in diabetes was higher in females. Elevated CRP in Type 1 diabetes was associated with poor glycemic control, larger body habitus, and other factors that comprise the insulin resistance syndrome. Nevertheless, CRP levels were not associated with complications. Longitudinal studies are warranted. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.