Aims Dyslipoproteinemia has been associated with nephropathy in diabetes, with stronger correlations in men than in women. We aimed to characterize and compare plasma lipoprotein profiles associated with normal and increased albuminuria in men and women using apolipoprotein-defined lipoprotein subclasses and simple apolipoprotein measures. Methods This is a cross-sectional study in a subset (154 women and 282 men) of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) cohort, using samples obtained in 1997-9. Immunochemical methods were used to quantify plasma apolipoprotein-based lipoprotein subclasses and individual apolipoprotein levels. Results In adjusted analyses, elevated Lipoprotein-B (Lp-B) was significantly associated with macroalbuminuria in men [odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.13 (1.15-3.97)] and women [3.01 (1.11-8.12)], while association with Lp-B:C was observed only in men [1.84 (1.19-2.86)]. For individual apolipoproteins the following significant associations with macroalbuminuria were observed in men only: Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) [1.97 (1.20-3.25)], Apo-AII [0.52 (0.29-0.93)], ApoC-III [1.95 (1.16-3.30)], "ApoC-III in VLDL" (heparin-manganese precipitate) [1.88 (1.16-3.04)], and "ApoCIII in HDL" (heparin-manganese supernatant) [2.03 (1.27-3.26)], all P < 0.05). Conclusions Atherogenic apolipoprotein-based profiles are associated with nephropathy in Type 1 diabetic men and to a lesser extent in women. The difference could result from the greater prevalence and severity of dyslipoproteinemia, and from the greater prevalence of renal dysfunction, in men vs women. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.