A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cardiac contractility modulation in patients with systolic heart failure: rationale, design, and baseline patient characteristics.

Academic Article


  • Cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) signals are nonexcitatory electrical signals delivered during the cardiac absolute refractory period that enhance the strength of cardiac muscular contraction. Prior research in experimental and human heart failure has shown that CCM signals normalize phosphorylation of key proteins and expression of genes coding for proteins involved in regulation of calcium cycling and contraction. The results of prior clinical studies of CCM have supported its safety and efficacy. A large-scale clinical study, the FIX-HF-5 study, is currently underway to test the safety and efficacy of this treatment. In this article, we provide an overview of the system used to deliver CCM signals, the implant procedure, and the details and rationale of the FIX-HF-5 study design. Baseline characteristics for patients randomized in this trial are also presented.
  • Authors

    Published In


  • Electric Countershock, Electrocardiography, Equipment Design, Heart Failure, Humans, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Myocardial Contraction, Patient Selection, Research Design
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Abraham WT; Burkhoff D; Nademanee K; Carson P; Bourge R; Ellenbogen KA; Parides M; Kadish A; FIX-HF-5 Investigators and Coordinators
  • Start Page

  • 641
  • End Page

  • 648.e1
  • Volume

  • 156
  • Issue

  • 4