OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pharmacologic therapy for urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) and sleep quality. METHODS: We conducted a planned secondary data analysis of sleep outcomes in a previously conducted multicenter, double-blind, 12-week randomized trial of pharmacologic therapy for urgency-predominant incontinence among community-dwelling women self-diagnosed using the 3-Incontinence Questions questionnaire. Participants (N=645) were assigned randomly to 4-8 mg antimuscarinic therapy daily or placebo. At baseline and 12 weeks, participants completed a validated voiding diary to evaluate incontinence and voiding symptoms, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to evaluate sleep quality, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale to evaluate daytime sleepiness. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age was 56 (±14) years, 68% were white, and 57% had poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score greater than 5). Mean frequency of any urinary incontinence and UUI was 4.6 and 3.9 episodes/d, respectively. After 12 weeks, women randomized to the antimuscarinic group reported greater decrease compared with the placebo group in UUI frequency (0.9 episodes/d; P<.001) and diurnal and nocturnal voiding frequency (P<.05). As compared with the placebo group, women in the antimuscarinic group also reported greater improvement in sleep quality (total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score 0.48; P=.02) with greater improvement in sleep duration and sleep efficiency subscales (P<.05). The intervention did not affect daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSION: Pharmacologic treatment of UUI is associated with decreased incontinence frequency and nocturia and improvement in overall sleep quality, sleep duration, and sleep efficiency. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00862745.