1. Bile acid CoA:amino acid:N-acyltransferase (BAT) was partially purified from dog, human, pig and rat livers. The interspecies variation in substrate specificity and kinetics were determined for glycine and taurine. 2. BAT activity from dog liver formed bile acid conjugates with taurine exclusively, whereas BAT activity from each of the other species formed conjugates with both taurine and glycine. 3. Biliary composition of glycine and taurine bile acid conjugates could partly be accounted for by substrate affinity (Km) and turnover number (Vmax) of BAT activity. 4. A monospecific anti-human BAT polyclonal antibody reacted on Western blot analysis with a 40 kDa band in a 100,000 g supernatant fraction from rat liver. 5. Immunoabsorption chromatography using an anti-human BAT antibody-Sepharose affinity column showed that both the immunoreactive protein band and BAT activity were removed from the 100,000 g supernatant fraction from human and rat livers.